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Weir (ex id frankisch *werra) est un armen katu, un organiset gvaltact inter collective actors, habend ka objective submitte un organiset collectivitat (land, communitat...) quod behandt un (bariem) politic swobodia. Id ghehdt se sules ep defense, id promotion au krig wirten, maghen au ressurcen. Weir biht act med id mobilisation armeen. Id prehpen soldaten est bohnden ei antslehnken os wikpagos. Ies Spartans, dind ies Romans hant tadrijan rationaliset id organisation ios heir. Unte id XIVt secule proe-prehpe gvonds in militar combats, tem quem id multiplication iom moderne professional armeen.

Id concept os "national weir", sulen ep conscriptionsarmees, taynd feudal heirs, ghehdt ses tarikhen ex id boi os Valmy (20 September 1792) inter Franceois ed Osterreichers-Preussens. Id gnahsa iom armen Moderne conflicts, diwideihnd lawa mobilisend important industrial wassilas ed ia ressurces ios civil societat (armes, transports...) gwehmt ex id US Civil Weir.

Mund Weir Oin (id "Megil Weir" ex 1914 do 1918) hat poskwo profund-ye marct id historia os weir, wawod ia nudt wassilas, ia infligen damna ed ia menscenleusa hant nact un aunpreceddent barbaria nivell. Weir buit anonymiset, transformet do un druv industrial massacre. Un real fracture muss inter gwit in id front (positionsweir in ia tranchees, samt inhuman gwitsconditions) ed civil weir. Bad, id Srig Weir skip un novo forme os conflict sulen ep id tula gohnen ab id nuclearum arme, dreibhend un decline ios traditional forme os weir.

Weir est circumscript in wakt ed rewos ed suppont un conflict inter dwo forces ep id samo nivell. Witerom, bihsiet tolken de pacification, rebellion au revolution in fall os desequilibret maghtula. Ne suspendt ia relations inter Stats sontern transformet ia; skeipt un continuation os politique med gvaltic zariyas (K. von Clausewitz). Weir ghi est un eminent-ye politic act. Carl Schmitt iey id politique ka distinctionscene inter prient ed peind. Weir ghi esiet id politic act par excellence, ar kay existe ka swo, swo tehrpt identifie-se binisnat sien peind ed combate el. Id Stat est id completest forme ios politique idghi saul hat id magh om identifie ed name el inner ed exter peind. Samt Globalisation, id distinction prient/peind ghehdiet trehve sien finum in id evolution kyun depolitisation ios planete ed id adgumt uns tienxia societat (κοσμοπολις).

Id lexis "weir" hat lakin biht extens vasyalgi conflict au katu. Biht eti tolken de "weir" contra un ideologia, un plaga, un siuge... Weir contra incivilitats, hungher, certain insects... ia exempels sont kathire. Weir ghehdt kathalika bihe definiht binisbat un krig : weir po id acquisition om territoria, politic swobodia, om natural ressurces... Ghehdt ses commercial, cultural, religieus, ethnic, psychologic...

Un armen weir kweit ex plura criteria : localisation, ziels, protagonistes (mathalan, interstat conflict au ne), id submission ad diksnormes (mathalan id Geneve convention), ia pands (ethnic, religieus conflict), ia nudta techniques, id type os mobiliset bwuki (mathalan presence au ne ios nuclear pand...)

Seinu ia potential causes om conflicts abunde, definihes de precis-ye ia causes uns conflict est un challenge. Lakin ghehde ses udwekwnen plura recurrent causes, qua se interaddeihnt in certain falls : local irredentismes, daysa iom natural ressurcen; waurg om (cultural, ethnic, religieus...) minoritats, schteukeln ios international systeme... Weir biht kwahn ab sems ka un "divin loy" (Bossuet, J. de Maistre) au ka consequence iom menscenpassions (Platon, Alain) auti iom inner contradictions os Capitalisme (K.Marx).

Ad weir sont traditional-ye attachet plur effects : economic impact bohnden ei weireffort (public investions, technologic innovations), demographic impact, function os diffusion/mestissage iom cultures. Id evident politic ed diplomatic impact se addeiht ei cultural ed technic diffusion quod id weiro dreibht.



Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) eet un preussisch general-major, heirsreformer ed stratege. Hat biht gnoht med sieno mweyssui magno wehrgo Vom Kriege. Eysa theorias de strategia, tactique hant haben uno megil influence in vasya occidental lands ed bihnt dar nundiens lohrn in ia militar academias. Trehvent unschi application in ia xeimens om management ed marketing.





Id classic conception os weir keiht pre quant ep un strict normative quader, un druv "weirieus". Tod weirieus rect wiswa weirphases : id entren do weir, ia modalitats ed effects ios conflict, tem quem id formalisation ios fin ios weir. Id entren do weir naudht mathalan id formalisme ios weirdeclaration. Weir endt kathalika med id signature uns document quod deht un fin ei conflict (pace traiteit, jiauschouplayct).

In sien tractat Vom Kriege proe-panct Clausewitz ia enderkweitus ios "classic" conception os weir : leit sekwent iom de un "forstehlben os politique med alya wassilas", un prist ios diplomatic ed politic gwit quod se ambeintert inter dwo pace prista. Weir ghi est neid arbitrair, auncondition (chunke reuls bihnt dostrigen) ni aunwastah (chunke id objective est dwinghes al duschman enover nies vol) gvaltact sontern ya un politic act, samt un precis finalitat ed id naudh os proportione ia wassilas employt pro tod. Montesquieu scripsit in id Spirit iom Loys od "ieus genten buhsa-ye keiht ep tod dastur sekwent quod kem ia divers nations inflixient ad mutu [...] unte weir id bilkull-ye lytst khitert, aun skehthe ira druv interesses."

Normes bequadernd weirneud hant exist meg pre id XIXt secule : un code os conduct unte weirtid eet uset ab iens Babylonis 2000 yars pre JC. Sam-ye in awo Hind, idschi Mahabharata incitit ad mildet dia aunarmihtens au vurnt peinds, instar id Bible ed id Coran. Yant Mediev, ieus genten ed id "Divtregv" buir codifien in 1625 ab Grotius (De jure belli ac pacis). Isghi hat sigwrt od ieus genten (quo correspond nundiens ad international ieus) ghehdt ses construgen, esdi ya Div ne existiet.

Tehrpsiet lakin bihe intizarto tiel id XIXt secule kay biht formaliset, unte id Den Haag Pace Conference in 1899, un hol om loys de weirmodalitats (Den Haag Conventions, 1899 ed 1907); In 1907, id IIIto Den Haag Convention hat wajibiht id weirdeclaration ed hat precis od i mutaharibs hant neid aunlimite recto de id cheus iom wassilas kay skehthe el peind. In 1927 gwohm id Geneve Convention de id bardachen traitement.

Id Geneve Convention os 1949 udwekwnsiet poskwo id "Humanitar International Ieus" kay ambghehrde wiswa protector bewehkwens in fall os weir. Plur surces complete mutu kay skipes tod ieus : id "Geneve ieus", yani ia traiteits elaboren sub ia auspices ios International Comitee ios Rudh Cruce) qua beziele protege i victims; id "Den Haag ieus" ois ia pace conferences om 1899 ed 1907, quod betrehft id control iom nudt wassilas ed methods; ed bad, ia norms ois ia Uniet Nations qua wakhe ke ia Menscenrects bihnt respecten in fall os armet conflict. Dwo suldasturs bihnt besonters garantien ab ta ijadhs : hois, id ban os nices un innocent, supponend id distinction inter civils ed combatants tem quem id ban os nices magvens ed civils; ciois id ban os recurre un violence quod ne est necessar, quo impliet mae nices, destruge we payttihes inutil-ye.

Biht lakin kaut od ta reuls buir ops forhonnen in id druna iom secules : ia surprise attaques aun tamhide weirdeclaration hant est kathire (mathalan id attaque os Pearl Harbor), tem quem id neud om prabhil-ye forbohden armes (mathalan sinepgas unte Mund Weir Oin). Ia genocides (kurden, armenen), id Schoah ed ia concentrationslaghers, kam alter barbariacts (mutilations commiss unte ethnic massacres) ed wiswa crimes contre humanitato deike od id "weirieus" hat est object om constant brehgs. Dehlct ghi bihe pelu constaten, aun od to surprindt, od ia heruper udwekwnta dasturs gwehment meis ender un code os moral conducto quem un druv dwinegh : ieus ne hat sagvt alnos mayster id universe os weir, quo hat eti muttihn id creation a posteriori pluren international curts os justice (Rwanda, Bosna) maimour med judce weircrimes, bet quom efficience est dar limiten. Id situation est api dramatic : 70% im anghens nehcus unte recent conflicts eent civils bayna qui uno majoritat gwenen au magven. In 2006, dwo millions magven habient est nict unte lyohgas os armen conflict ed meis quem six millions habient esen kohmtern jumiung-ye

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